Lunar Global Positioning and communication systems
Due to renewed interest in exploring our space neighbor, high precision navigation systems and global autonomous communication systems are becoming very important. Many navigation systems using different technologies are currently under development. In particular, optical navigation systems are promising, but their limits depend on light conditions and knowledge of the surface.
A Global Positioning System around the Moon creates a wide range of possibilities, improving the navigation solution both on the ground and in flight. Additionally, it relaxes the requirement of Earth bound communication subsystems on board each lunar space mission, resulting in lower power consumption for telecommunications, smaller dimensions and less total mass.
A Lunar Global Positioning System (LGPS) and a Lunar Global Communication System (LGCS) can be obtained using two constellations of satellites on Lissajous trajectories around the collinear L1 and L2 libration points of the Earth–Moon system. In fact, these trajectories are able to efficiently provide both global positioning and global communication systems for on-ground and in-flight lunar missions.